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» ANTIOXIDANTII IN ORGANISM
ANTIOXIDANTII Mentinerea sanatatii si asigurarea longevitatii cu ajutorul antioxidantilor naturali

Rolul antioxidantilor in organism

Odata cu aparitia oxigenului (mediul aerob), celulele incep metabolizarea acestui element, in scopul producerii de energie la nivelul organitelor numite  mitocondrii. Acest proces energetic conduce si la formarea de elemente care au un electron liber, numite radicali liberi sau agenti oxidanti , deoarece fiind foarte instabile si reactioneaza foarte usor cu alte structure celulare (in special cu lipidele, proteinele si AND-ul celular), pe care le deterioreaza.

Exista trei radicali liberi produsi in mod curent in organism : superoxidul (O2-.) , hidroxilul ( OH-. ), peroxinitritul ( ONOO-.) la care se adauga oxigenul liber (care nu este propriu zis un radical liber, dar are efecte nocive asemanatoare). Radicalii liberi, produsi normali ai metabolismului celular,  mai provin din : leucocite (generandu-i pentru distrugerea “intrusilor” fagocitati), endoteliul vascular (ajutand la reglarea contractiilor muschilor netezi ai vaselor sanvine), hematii.

Pentru a combate supraproductia radicalilor liberi, precum si actiunea distructiva a acestora asociata cu prezenta factorilor poluanti din mediu (fumul de tigara, aerul poluat, azbest, anumite medicamente, lumina ultravioleta, pesticide si alte subst. chimice, dibetul, radiatii, stresul emotional, leziunile legate de reperfuzie, exercitiile fizice in exces, leziunile articulatiilor si ale tesuturilor inclusiv durerile sau febra musculara, prepararea necorespunzatoare a alimentelor,  alimentarea in exces cu sange a tractului digestiv dupa o masa copioasa) generatori si ei de radicali liberi, celulele dezvolta sisteme enzimatice de ANTIOXIDANTI. Dar ANTIOXIDANTE sunt si alte substante care nu sunt enzime : GLUTATIONUL, vitaminele A, C si E etc(vezi mai jos).

In anii ’50, Denham Harman elaboreaza teoria stresului oxidativ, aratand ca acumularea unei cantitati crescute de radicali liberi poate fi pusa in directa legatura cu fenomenul de imbatranire si de scurtare a duratei de viata. De atunci , numeroase cercetari au demonstrat importanta ANTIOXIDANTILOR in neutralizarea excesului de radicali liberi.

 

Antioxidanti endogeni si exogeni

Sistemul de aparare naturala descris anterior este constituit din trei ANTIOXIDANTI (ENDOGENI) , produsi in interiorul organismului :

  1. 1. Superoxid-dismutaza (SOD) – converteste radicalul superoxid in peroxid de hydrogen, care, intr-un proces separat, este transformat in apa si oxigen.
  2. 2. Catalaza – distruge peroxidul de hydrogen. (previne astfel, alterarea lanturilor ADN, impiedicand aparitia canderului)
  3. 3. Glutation-peroxidaza (GSH) – care este mai importanta decat catalaza in indepartarea peroxidului de hydrogen.

Cand este depasita capacitatea antioxidantilor endogeni de a neutraliza radicalii liberi, acestia provoaca importante distrugeri celulare. Pentru a preveni aceasta, este necesar un aport de ANTIOXIDANTI NATURALI EXOGENI ( prin alimentatie) :

  1. 1. Vitamina A – prin protejarea proteinelor de oxidare are roluri importante in procesul vederii, stimuleaza imunitatea si previne cancerul ( in special cel de piele si de mucoase; asociat cu vit. B1,C si E previne numeroase alte tipuri de cancer).
  2. 2. Vitamina B2 – rol antioxidant (actiune sinergica cu glutationul) , impiedica procesele de imbatranire, patologia legata de varsta, precum si aparitia cancerului (in asociere cu vit.A, seleniul, zincul, magneziul si molibdenul – in special pentru cancerul de esofag). Impeuna cu alte vitamine protejeaza mucoasele oculare.
  3. 3. Vitamina B3 –  intervine in activarea sistemului de reparare a ADN-ului (distrus de radicalii liberi ), prevenind astfel cancerul  (prin procesul numit poli-ADN-riboxilare).
  4. 4. Vitamina B10 – protectoare a acizilor grasi, a adrenalinei si a vitaminelor A, E, F si K impotriva oxidarii.
  5. 5. Vitamina C – puternic antioxidant, intrerupe reactiile in lant produse de radicalii liberi, luand asupra ei electronul liber !
  6. 6. Vitamina E – formata din mai multi compusi, se incorporeaza usor in membranele celulare stopand oxidarea acizilor grasi polinesaturati (oferindu-le acestora atomul sau de hidrogen inlocuindu-le astfel electronul de care au fost deposedati), existenti deasemenea in membranele celulare. Este regenerata de catre vitamina C (!) asigurandu-se astfel protectia antioxidanta continua a structurilor membranare. Astfel, se remarca rolurile vitaminei E :
  • protejeaza vitaminele A, B1, D, F, precum si numerosi hormoni si enzime, de actiunea oxidanta a peroxizilor
  • ajuta la oxigenarea celulelor
  • previne cancerul (in special cel gastro-intestinal si pulmonar)
  • este anticonvulsivanta, fiind utila in tratamentul epilepsiei
  • protejeaza LDL-colesterolul de oxidare
  • protectie a pielii
  1. 7. Vitamina E + Vitamina C + β-carotenul – mai multe studii epidemiologice sugereaza ca sunt protectoare contra afectiunilor cardiovasculare, impiedica grasimlie si proteinele transportoare de grasimi din circulatia sanvina sa se oxideze si blocheaza formarea de nitrosamine, care au efect cancerigen la nivelul tubului digestive, al plamanilor si ficatului.
  2. 8. Vitamina N (acidul lipoic) – antioxidant important prin neutralizarea radicalilor liberi, ajuta la reciclarea partial a altor oxidanti, cum ar fi vit.C si E, CoQ10, crescandu-le deasemenea si eficacitatea, elimina radicalii peroxinitritici (resposabili de aparitia aterosclerozei, a anumitor afectiuni pulmonare, inflamatii cornice si a tulburarilor neurologice).
  3. 9. Coenzima Q10 – antioxidant puternic si protector al membranelor mitocondriale. Stimuleaza imunitatea, prevenind imbatranirea si afectiunile legate de varsta, potenteza actiunea vitaminei E.

10. Vitaminele C2(esculozida) si P(rutozida, hesperidina) – actiune antioxidanta si anticanceroasa

11. Fierul – stimuleaza imunitatea si activeaza catalaza, enzima care asigura degradarea radicalilor liberi.

12. Germaniul – protejeaza aminoacizii si vitaminele A si F impotriva oxidarii; previne imbatranirea si cancerul (prin stimularea productiei de interferon ce lupta contra celulelor canceroase).

13. Manganul – are rol antioxidant, prin prezenta sa in enzima SOD, in mitocondrii.

14. Seleniul – atunci cand capacitatea vitaminei E de a neutraliza cantitatea de hidroxiperoxid este depasita, intervine o enzima care contine seleniu : glutation-peroxidaza. Seleniul regleaza nivelul colesterolului, s-a dovedit eficace si in tratarea artrozei, prin controlul producerii de prostaglandine, previne cancerul (de san, prostate, colon si bronsic prin stimularea sistemului imunitar)

15. Zincul – rol antioxidant, stimuleaza imunitatea

16. Glutationul – este o tripeptida ce reprezinta substratul mai multor enzime esentiale pentru organism. Este considerat unul dintre principalii antioxidanti , neutralizeaza radicalul liber peroxidul de hidrogen, el  este astfel oxidat si inactivat, fiind regenerat in prezenta FAD si NADPH printr-o alta enzima, glutation-reductaza. Carenta de glutation face dificila lupta impotriva agentilor toxici care pot determina unele afectiuni cardiace, inflamatii articulare, unele forme de cancer, tulburari endocrine, scaderea imunitatii, tulburari nervoase. Stresul insusi poate genera o carenta de glutation. Cofactorii necesari metabolismului sau sunt: vitamina N (acidul α-lipoic), vitamina B2, seleniul si zincul. Mai este indicat in hepatita si in eczeme.

17. Flavonoidele substante fenolice naturale, reprezentand pigmentii galbeni (flavonolii, flavonele, chalconele), rosii, violeti, albastri (antocianii), brun-cafenii (taninurile) ai florilor, fructelor si a altor organe vegetale. Au proprietati antioxidante, captand radicalii liberi formati in diverse stari patologice; mai protejeaza fosfolipidele membranare de oxidare, faciliteaza absorbtia vitaminei C , protejand-o de oxidare, amplificandu-i si prelungindu-i efectele. Flavonoidele au si actiune antiulceroasa, antiinfectioasa, antivirala, antifungica ; fortifica peretii capilarelor si regleaza permeabilitatea lor, permitand astfel o mai buna oxigenare si hranire a diferitelor organe ; deosebit de utile in caz de hemoragii. De remarcat un aspect uimitor : are peste 46 de efecte benefice recunoscute din punct de vedere medical (a se urmari si paradoxul francez). De remarcat efectul puternic anticancerigen al flavonoidelor :

  • la nivelul mucoasei intestinale s-a demonstrat actiunea flavonoidelor pro-sintetizatoare a enzimelor de faza I (monooxigenaze) si faza II (glucuronil-transferaze, sulfo-transferaze etc.) ce actioneaza in primele stadii ale initierii canceroase .
  • Inhibarea stadiilor tardive ale carcinogenezei are loc prin suprimarea mitozei de catre prezenta flavonoidelor (in special quercitina)
  • Eliminarea celulelor aflate in faza initiala a mortii celulare programate (apoptoza). Flavonoidele si izotiocianatii provoaca apoptoza celulelor canceroase (in vitro).

18. Proantocianidina – compus ce face parte din clasa flavonoidelor, se gaseste in samburii de struguri, concentratiile cele mai mari fiind prezente in samburii de struguri negri. Fiind unul dintre cei mai puternici antioxidanti, manifesta puternice actiuni in organism :

  • Combate in mod direct radicalii liberi
  • Se opune acumularilor de peroxizi
  • Stopeaza peroxidarea lipidelor
  • Agent antihistaminic, antiinflamator si antialergen
  • Ajuta procesele de reparare a colagenului (afectat de radicali liberi), permitand astfel cartilagiilor articulare, arterelor, pielii, tesuturilor si capilarelor sa ramana elastice (chiar sa redobandeasca elasticitatea) !
  • Repara leziunile aterosclerotice
  • Asigura rezistenta fata de atacurile agentilor mutageni
  • Diminueaza efectele perturbatoare ale stresului si ale anxietatii
  • Este eficienta in afectiunile cutanate
  • Revitalizeaza celulele, imbunatateste hranirea lor cu elemente nutritive
  • Fortifica arterele, venele si capilarele
  • Stimuleaza producerea de energie, reduce oboseala si creste vitalitatea
  • Reduce cefaleea
  • Reduce inflamatia prostatei
  • Diminueaza tulburarile premenstruale si cele de la menopauza
  • Reduce riscul imbolnavirilor la sportivii de performanta (stiut fiind faptul ca sportul de performanta favorizeza formarea de radicali liberi)

19. Licopenul – imunstimulator si un antioxidant important, protejeaza impotriva bolilor degenerative si a agresiunilor exterioare (poluare, stres, fumat ). Previne afectiunile cardiovasculare, a cataractei si  a unor forme de cancer (uterin, de colon, de san, de prostata, de pancreas).

20. Metionina – actiuni antioxidanta (neutralizeza toxinele, transformandu-le in L-cisteina), antianemica, hipolipemianta, anticatarala, hepatoprotectoare, anticancerosa. Participa la numeroase procese metabolice.

21. Tirozina – prin oxidarea sa provine melanina. Precursor al hormonilor tiroidieni, al adrenalinei, noradrenalinei si dopaminei. Participa la sinteza estrogenilor, a encefalinelor si a hormonului de crestere (STH). Actiune antioxidanta, antidepresiva, antiparkinsoniana.

22. Triptofanul – actiune antioxidanta, analgezica, anxiolitica, antidepresiva, antireumatica, hipoglicemianta, hipotensiva, sedative, antimigrenoasa si antiparkinsoniana.

23. Cisteina – actiune antioxidanta, detoxifianta, antitumorala, antibiotic, antiulceroasa si anticanceroasa

24. Alanina, Arginina, Hsitdina, Treonina, Taurina – au actiune antioxidant ape langa alte efecte benefice.

 

Sinergia antioxidantilor

Studii de amploare, realizate in SUA, Anglia, Finlanda, Japonia, China (vezi mai jos), au concluzionat ca acei care consuma fructe si legume proaspete au risc  de afectare de catre radicalii liberi redus cu aproximativ 75 % !

Atentie ! Este vorba despre consumul de fructe si legume proaspete si nu de suplimete vitaminice, deoarece acestea din urma , realizate in laborator nu pot inlocui toata gama de compusi care se gaseste in mod natural in fructe si legume : vitamine, saruri minerale, polifenoli, etc. In lupta vitaminelor contra radicalilor liberi este foarte importanta sinergia (studii chimice au demonstrate ca puterea antioxidanta a vitaminelor creste foarte mult daca aportul alimentar este bogat in cat mai multi-vitamine antioxidante!)

 

Studiul China

 

Prin “mega-studiul” China, T.Colin Campbell, “a realizat cel mai important studiu care a fost realizat vreodata , citirea concluziilor din cartea sa, va poate salva viata”- Dean Ornish, doctor in medicina, fondatorul si presedintele Institutului de cercetare in Medicina Preventiva, profesor universitar, Univeristatea California, San Francisco.

Studiul China trebuie citit, studiat si aprofundat pentru a intelege complexitatea factorului preventiv in viata omului. Privitor la antioxidanti (de nenumarate ori mentionati si prezentati in extenso in cartea sa) T.Colin Campbell afirma: “noi, finite vii, suntem atrase de plante, le mancam si imprumutam scuturile  lor de antioxidanti pentru propria noastra sanatate”.

 

Studiul SUVIMAX

(suplimentarea de vitamine si minerale antioxidante)

Unul dintrele cele mai valoroase studii asupra antioxidantilor, SUVIMAX, realizat in Franta (pe 13735 adulti,  pe o durata de 8 ani) si publicat in noiembrie 2004, arata ca o crestere a antioxidantilor in alimentatie permite diminuarea riscului de cancer si "este esentiala alimentatia variata si echilibrata, insistand pe fructe si legume, care poate proteja sanatatea". Chiar daca suplimentele pot servi drept suport de sustinere in cazul anumitor dezechilibre, suplimentele nu vor inlocui bunele obiceiuri alimentare.

 

Concluzii : Importanta covarsitoare a fitonutrientilor

Alimentatia naturala, avand la baza legumele si fructele nepreparate/ neprocesate termic, chimic poate fi un prim pas important in restabilirea starii de sanatate si de bunastare fizica, psihica, intelectuala si spiritual. Antioxidantii sunt indispensabili in mentinerea sanatatii dar si in tratarea diverselor afectiuni, ca adjuvanti remarcabili.

Spatiul restrains al acestui articol nu permite detalierea importantei extraordinare a antioxidantilor in alimentatia umana, din acest motiv se impune studierea bibliografiei atasate.

Pofta Buna !

 

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